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AIDS Crisis

Updated: Feb 1


Initial Outbreak


In May 1990, ACT-UP mounted a protest at NIH to bring awareness to the public the biomedical research in combating HIV-AIDS.
In May 1990, ACT-UP mounted a protest at NIH to bring awareness to the public the biomedical research in combating HIV-AIDS. (Source: Flickr, Public Domain)

In June of 1981, the CDC began reporting on unusual cases of pneumonia and cancer in gay men in Los Angeles. The first known display of AIDS was on June 5th, 1981, when the CDC published an article discussing a rare lung infection that was found in 5 young gay men who were previously healthy. Over the next few days, there was an influx of opportunistic illnesses with no obvious origins. By the end of the year, 337 cases had been reported of the mysterious immune deficiency behind these infections, with upwards of 90% of infections found in males whose sexual identity was gay. 130, or around 40%, of patients, were dead by December 31st. This disorder, which would later be named AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus).


Transmission


The virus can be transmitted or "caught" by anyone regardless of age, gender, sexual orientation, or any other characteristic, but it is most common among gay men. HIV, the precursor to AIDS, is transmitted through blood, vaginal fluid, semen, or breast milk.



Due to a lack of sexual education and resources for the LGBTQ+ community at the time, many men did not use condoms or take precautionary steps, such as getting tested, before engaging in sex, which allowed the virus to spread rapidly through the community without any resistance.


Because of this and its prominent effect on the LBGTQ+ community (and the generally homophobic atmosphere of the early 1980s), the public was reluctant to endorse funding and research for the epidemic, coining the term "gay cancer" within a month of the first reported case. HIV would go on to infect 8-10 million people over the next decade.


Health Repercussions


AIDS activists from the Gay Men's Health Crisis carry a "Stop Hate. Stop AIDS" banner
AIDS activists from the Gay Men's Health Crisis carry a "Stop Hate. Stop AIDS" banner (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

At the start of the AIDS crisis, there were no treatments or medications available to help individuals once they contracted HIV. Left untreated, the virus would often develop into AIDS once the number of CD4 cells reached a minimum threshold, which resulted in a severe weakening of one's immune system. Because of this, many infected parties caught other opportunistic illnesses, leading them to lethal infections of pneumonia, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and many more. With AIDS, their immune system was unable to fight off these infections, ultimately leading to death for many.


Public Reaction


Gay men were the main driving force responding to the AIDS epidemic and working for change and answers to the novel virus. The rest of the public had virtually no response as their communities weren't being as greatly affected, and the views towards the gay community were very controversial. Michael Callen and Richard Berkowitz were two gay men who advocated for sexual education during the epidemic. They published a piece of work explaining the importance of gay men using condoms during sex to prevent the spread of HIV.


At the time, people still believed that HIV was restricted to white gay men. However, this was not the case, as the virus could infect anybody. Therefore, activists began emphasizing condom use for people of color and lesbians during their later campaigns. While local communities took initiative against the virus, the federal government was not as active. At the beginning of the crisis, they provided very little funding for research about the virus or preventative measures for affected communities.


 Activists protesting the alleged slow pace of federal research against AIDS spent the morning of May 21 marching on the NIH campus. Eighty-two demonstrators were arrested, including 21 who broke into the office of Dr. Daniel Hoth, director of NIAID's Division of AIDS,.
Activists protesting the alleged slow pace of federal research against AIDS spent the morning of May 21 marching on the NIH campus. Eighty-two demonstrators were arrested, including 21 who broke into the office of Dr. Daniel Hoth, director of NIAID's Division of AIDS. (Source: Flickr, Public Domain)

Additionally, many people felt as though the government took too broad of a stance on fighting the virus, focusing their campaigns on "all" for every member of the public rather than honing in on the communities that were being disproportionately affected. The lack of response gave the virus ample time to spread at an unprecedented pace and affect thousands of people, mostly gay men.


Current Overview


To date, 770,000 people have died from AIDS since 1981. In 2019, 38 million people were living with HIV worldwide—there were 1.2 million in the US alone. However, the flood of support for the LGBTQ+ community within the past two decades has allowed for major developments in HIV/AIDS research.


Today, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives if they seek treatment and will likely never develop AIDS.


 

References


Content Source: HIV.govDate last updated: May 01, 2019. (2021, April 8). Other health issues of special concern for people living with HIV. HIV.gov. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/staying-in-hiv-care/other-related-health-issues/other-health-issues-of-special-concern-for-people-living-with-hiv.



Fayyad, A. (2019, July 22). The LGBTQ Health Clinic that faced a dark truth about the AIDS crisis. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2019/07/us-aids-policy-lingering-epidemic/594445/.



Magazine, S. (2013, December 4). The confusing and at-times counterproductive 1980s response to the AIDS epidemic. Smithsonian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-confusing-and-at-times-counterproductive-1980s-response-to-the-aids-epidemic-180948611/.



A timeline of HIV and AIDS. HIV.gov. (2021, September 7). https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/history/hiv-and-aids-timeline.



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